Sukarno is a shinning name in the history of the Indonesian liberation movement. This prominent figure was born in Surabaya, Java on June 6, 1901. He was born in a family of a school teacher. He graduated as a civil engineer from the Bandung Technological Institute. He acquired deep knowledge of history and sociology. In his youth he took part in the organization of the Bandung Study Club. This club called for the rejection of cooperation with the Dutch colonial authorities. When on July 4, 1927 the Nationalist Party of Indonesia was established, Sukarno became its first chairman. Sukarno was arrested in 1929 for anti colonial activities. In the trial he exposed the crimes of colonial authorities. In the same trial he raised the issue of the rights of the Indonesians. The outstanding speech of the court increased his popularity. After his release he continued his political activities. Once again in 1933 he was arrested and imprisoned for nine years. During the Japanese occupation of Indonesia, Sukarno maintained good relations with the military authorities. He did this to prevent the return of Dutch rule. At the same time, he assisted underground national and patriotic organizations. When the Japanese administration saw the approaching defeat of Japan in the war, Japan set up a committee for the preparation of Indonesian independence. Sukarno headed that committee. Sukarno announced the independence of Indonesia on August 17, 1945. He became the first president of the new Republic of Indonesia.