Posts

Showing posts from 2022

Georgian Poetry: A Short Note

The Decadent movement was a late 19th century artistic and literary movement. It followed an aesthetic ideology of artificiality. The Georgian poetry is a reaction against that decadent transitional poetry. It is that poetry which was produced in the early 20th century by British poets. This poetry was lyrical in nature. It flourished in the reign of George V. The Georgians endeavoured to restore the simplicity and naturalness. They avoided the use of archaic diction and composed neat and melodious poems. Walter de la Mare, William Henry Davies, Rupert Brooke, John Drinkwater, Wilfrid Wilson Gibson, Harold Monro, Sir Edward Marsh, Masefield, Lascelles Abercrombie, Hilaire Belloc, Edmund Charles Blunden, Ralph Hodgson, James Elroy Flecker, Robert Graves, Siegfried Sassoon, Sir J.C. Squire and Edward Thomas etc are some important Georgian poets. हिंदी अनुवाद:  डिकैडेंट आंदोलन 19वीं सदी के अंत का एक कलात्मक और साहित्यिक आंदोलन था। इसने कृत्रिमता की सौंदर्यवादी विचारधारा का अनुसरण किय

War Poets: A Note

The First World War and its horrors greatly influenced Modern Poetry. Poets like Richard Aldington, Laurence Binyon, Edmund Blunden, Rupert Brooke, Wilfrid Wilson Gibson, Robert Graves, Julian Grenfell, Ivor Gurney, David Jones, Robert Nichols, Wilfred Owen, Herbert Read, Isaac Rosenberg, Siegfried Sassoon, Charles Hamilton Sorley and Edward Thomas composed war poems. Poets like Rupert Brooke and some others did not personally experience the horrors of war. That is why they sang of patriotism, nobility and sacrifice. But Wilfred Owen, Siegfried Sassoon and some others exposed the horror of war. It is because they personally experienced the horror of war. Charles Hamilton Sorley and Issac Rosenberg and all other poets mentioned above contributed a lot to the development of war poetry. In short, the war poets presented the ugly face of war in their poetry. हिंदी अनुवाद : प्रथम विश्व युद्ध और इसकी भयावहता ने आधुनिक कविता को बहुत प्रभावित किया। रिचर्ड एल्डिंगटन, लारेंस बिनियन, एडम

Modern Age: Chief Characteristics

The end of the Victorian era is the beginning of modern age. The first half of the 20th century is very important in the history of English literature. It marks a clear departure from the compromise and stability of the Victorian period. The following are the important characteristics of the modern age: 1. Interrogation and Anxiety: The 20th century is known as the age of interrogation and anxiety. In this century the scientific revolution shook man's faith in the authority of religion and church. The social, moral, political and economic scenario was changing fast. People were not ready to accept anything without testing it on the touchstone of reason. Modern industrial and technical progress gave birth to the spirit of competition. It increased frustration, anxiety and cynicism. The literature of this period reflects all these tendencies. 2. Art's for Life's Sake: In the modern age the doctrine of art for art's sake was rejected. The doctrine of art for life

Romantic Poets: A Short Note

The period of 1780-1837 is known as the Age of Romanticism. It is known as the age of Romantic Revival too. It is often called the golden period of English poetry. William Wordsworth is called forerunner of this epoch-making period. The following are the important Romantic poets: 1. William Wordsworth: Lyrical Ballads , The Prelude and T he Tintern Abbey are his important works. He was a worshipper  of Nature. He moralized  and spiritualised it. He was fond of humanism, childhood, lyricism and simple style. 2. Samuel Taylor Coleridge: The Rime of the Ancient Mariner , Christable and Kubla Khan are his best works. In his works we find supernatural, wonder and horror. He loved the simplicity of poetic diction. 3. P.B. Shelley: He is known for his Queen Mab , Prometheus Unbound , and his Odes . He is an incomparable lyricist and an ardent lover of liberty. He is a passionate believer in Nature and a devoted admirer of Greek Myth, Art and Culture. He dreams of a new world whi

Romantic Movement (1780-1837): A Note

The period of 1780-1837 is known as the Age of Romanticism. It is known as the age of Romantic Revival too. It is often called the golden period of English poetry. William Wordsworth can be safely called forerunner of this epoch-making period. The Romantic Revival means the re-birth of Romanticism in English poetry. During the 18th century the classical school of poetry had been predominant. Thompson, William Blake and Thomas Gray re-acted against the classical school of poetry. All these poets tried to rise above the fixed literary conventions and artificial laws. They upheld that the poet should write as he pleases. He should allow his fancy to roam. The French Revolution influenced poets like William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge. They gave a deathblow to classicism by publishing Lyrical Ballads in 1798. This book was the official manifesto of the Romantic School of Poetry. William Wordsworth, P.B. Shelley, John Keats, Lord Byron, and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are the

Poetic Drama: A Note

Introduction: The poetic drama is a great achievement of the modern age. It is a mixture of high seriousness and colloquial element. It is the combination of the tradition and the experiment and of the ancient and the new. It is symbolic and difficult. Its verse form is blank verse or free verse. In short, its vehicle is verse, its mechanism is imagery, its substance is myth and its binding force is musical pattern. Beginning: The 18th and the 19th century contributed little to the development of poetic drama due to the unfavourable conditions. There were signs of rebirth of this drama by 1920. But it could not gain much ground. The reason was that most of the dramatists of this period were interested in realistic drama. A change was noticed with the passage of time. The disciples of Ibsen began to be overshadowed. At the abbey theatre Yeats tried to revive poetic drama. But he could not succeed. It was T.S. Eliot who firmly established it. He prepared the concrete ground for it

Metaphysical Poets: A short Note

The term metaphysical may be applied to any poetry which deals with spiritual or philosophical matters. But it is limited to the work of a group of poets of the seventeenth century. Metaphysical poetry is a revolt against the popular current of the time. Among these poets John Donne is the most notable. Other so-called metaphysical poets were John Cleveland, Abraham Cowley, Richard Crashaw, George Herbert, Henry Vaughan and Andrew Marvell 1. John Donne: John Donne was the founder of metaphysical school of poetry. He is the greatest poet of this school. His works include Satires, Songs and Sonnets and Elegies. His poetry falls into three divisions - amorous poetry, religious poems and satirical poems. His love poems are subtle analysis of all the moods of a lover. His religious poems are confessions or prayers. His satirical poems reveal his cynical nature and critical mind. 2. George Herbert: Of all the metaphysical poets George Herbert is the most widely read. The Temple revea

Metaphysical Poetry: A Short Note

The term metaphysical may be applied to any poetry which deals with spiritual or philosophical matters. But it is limited to the work of a group of poets of the seventeenth century. Metaphysical poetry is a revolt against the popular current of the time. Among these poets John Donne is the most notable. Other so-called metaphysical poets were John Cleveland, Abraham Cowley, Richard Crashaw, George Herbert and Henry Vaughan. In 17th century John Dryden in his 'Discourse' said that Donne affects the metaphysics. Later on Dr. Johnson borrowed this term from Dryden's phrase and used it for a group of 17th century poets. Dr. Johnson said, ‘About the beginning of the 17th century appeared a race of writers that may be termed as metaphysical poets. They were men of learning. To show their learning was their whole endeavour. Their thoughts are often new but seldom natural. The heterogeneous ideas are yoked by violence together’. The following are the important characteristics of

Modern Age: Chief Characteristics

The end of the Victorian era is the beginning of modern age. The first half of the 20th century is very important in the history of English literature. It marks a clear departure from the compromise and stability of the Victorian period. The following are the important characteristics of the modern age: 1. Interrogation and Anxiety: The 20th century is known as the age of interrogation and anxiety. In this century the scientific revolution shook man's faith in the authority of religion and church. The social, moral, political and economic scenario was changing fast. People were not ready to accept anything without testing it on the touchstone of reason. Modern industrial and technical progress gave birth to the spirit of competition. It increased frustration, anxiety and cynicism. The literature of this period reflects all these tendencies. 2. Art's for Life's Sake: In the modern age the doctrine of art for art's sake was rejected. The doctrine of art for life

Elizabethan Era (1558-1603): Chief Characteristics

Introduction: Elizabethan Era is the most fascinating period in the history of England. It is named after the greatest Queen of England, Queen Elizabeth I. The long period of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) is known as the golden age in the history of England. The Elizabethan period was the period of glory and triumph in the life and literature of the English people. It is also known as the Renaissance or the Shakespearean age. This age is the first great age of drama and the second great age of poetry. The peace and the prosperity, the Renaissance and the Reformation, the liberty and stability, the discoveries and exploration etc. are the chief characteristics of the age The Renaissance and the Reformation : In the Elizabethan age there were two potent forces– the Renaissance and the Reformation. Both the elements co-operated each other. These two elements produced a great uplifting of the spirit. The Renaissance aroused the intellect and aesthetic faculties and the Ref

English Novel: The Story of its Development up to 18th Century

The discovery of the modern novel is a typical gift of the 18th Century. It is the original contribution of England to the world of literature. The novel as a popular genre began with Richardson's Pamela in 1740. But the root of the English novel plunges deep through the centuries. In the 14th and 15th centuries the novel was in the process of formation. In those early days the novel was in the form of romantic tales based upon adventures and romantic episodes. A certain amount of prose fiction did exist in the 16th and 17th centuries also. The Beginning: Malory's Le Morte Darthur is a noticeable romance. It was the first English romance. With this book the English novel took a distinctive forward step. Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales have all the qualities of the latter day fiction. In The Canterbury Tales Chaucer produced the first English novel. Another great work of value before the Elizabethan fiction was Thomas More's Utopia . Thus in early days Chaucer and More

Christopher Marlowe: An Introduction

Christopher Marlowe is one of the greatest playwrights of Elizabethan England. He was the most shining star among the University Wits . He is appreciated in the entire world for the establishment of powerful dramatic blank verse. In spite of a very short career of play writing , his achievements are diverse and splendid. Swinburne calls him ‘the first great English poet, the father of English tragedy and the creator of blank verse’. Christopher Marlowe was baptized in a church at Canterbury, England, on February 26, 1564. He was the son of John Marlowe who was a shoemaker of Canterbury. He is known as Kit Marlowe too. His early years were spent in Canterbury. He received his school education at King’s School Canterbury. After that with the help of a patron he went up to Cambridge in 1581 and obtained his degree in 1583. Arthur Compton Rickett says, “Of his life after 1583, little is known”. Christopher Marlowe was a versatile genius. He acquired vast knowledge which is displaye

Restoration Age: A Note

The period from 1660 to 1700 is named as the Restoration period. The people of England were suffering from tension due to strict rule of Cromwell. That is why the nation welcomed the Restoration of Charles II. In 1660 King Charles II was brought to the throne. This Restoration brought about a revolutionary change in the social life and literature of England. The following characteristics distinguish this period: 1. The Restoration: King Charles II was a thorough debauch. He was immoral. He had a number of mistresses. He was surrounded by corrupt courtiers all the time. Due to king’s carelessness and weakness corruption was rampant in all walks of life. Thus during this period integrity, spiritual zeal, moral earnestness and decorum were thrown to winds. 2. Religious and Political Quarrels: In the Restoration period we see the rise of two political parties. They were the Whigs and the Tories. The Whigs were opposing and the Tories were supporting the king. The rise of these part