Where the Mind is Without Fear by Tagore : A Complete Study

 I. Tagore: An Introduction

Tagore is a very great Indian poet. He was a versatile genius. It is he who got the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. He was born in Calcutta on May 7, 1861. His literary works include fictions, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas and numerous popular songs. But it was poetry that brought world popularity for him. This very Tagore has composed Jana Gana Mana, the national anthem of India. He also has composed Amar Sonar Bangla, the national anthem of Bangladesh. His literary canvas is vast. It covers lots of style. Tagore skillfully handled all the genres of literature. He studies man in relation to Nature, man in relation to God and man in relation to man. Tagore's poetry is mainly lyrical. His poetry deals with love for God, love for nature and love for humanity. His famous song Where the Mind is Without Fear is full with patriotism, nationalism and Indianness. This great poet is known for his best known collection, Gitanjali. In short, Tagore is a representative poet of our country. He always sings for the betterment of his motherland. He attempts to inspire his countrymen to practice the ideals propounded by their forefathers.

(टैगोर एक बहुत ही महान भारतीय कवि हैं। वे बहुमुखी प्रतिभा के धनी थे। ये वे हैं जिन्हें 1913 में साहित्य का नोबेल पुरस्कार मिला था। उनका जन्म 7 मई1861 को कलकत्ता में हुआ था। उनके साहित्यिक कार्यों में कथाएँनिबंधलघु कथाएँयात्रा वृत्तांतनाटक और कई लोकप्रिय गीत शामिल हैं। लेकिन यह कविता ही थी जिसने उन्हें विश्व लोकप्रियता दिलाई। इसी टैगोर ने भारत के राष्ट्रगान जन गण मन की रचना की है। उन्होंने बांग्लादेश के राष्ट्रगान अमार सोनार बांग्ला की भी रचना की। उनका साहित्यिक कैनवास विशाल है। इसमें बहुत सारी शैली शामिल हैं। टैगोर ने साहित्य की सभी विधाओं को कुशलता से संभाला। उन्होंने प्रकृति एवं मनुष्य, भगवान एवं आदमी और मनुष्य एवं मनुष्य के आपसी संबंधों का अध्ययन किया है । टैगोर की कविता मुख्यतः गेय है। उनकी कविता ईश्वर के प्रति प्रेमप्रकृति के प्रति प्रेम और मानवता के प्रति प्रेम से संबंधित है। उनका प्रसिद्ध गीत व्हेयर द माइंड इज विदाउट फियर देशभक्तिराष्ट्रवाद और भारतीयता से भरपूर है। यह महान कवि अपने सबसे प्रसिद्ध संग्रहगीतांजलि के लिए जाना जाता है। संक्षेप में टैगोर हमारे देश के प्रतिनिधि कवि हैं। वे हमेशा मातृभूमि की भलाई के लिए गाते हैं। वे अपने देशवासियों को उनके पूर्वजों द्वारा प्रतिपादित आदर्शों पर चलने के लिए प्रेरित करने का प्रयास करते हैं।)

II. Where the Mind is Without Fear : A Summary

Where the Mind is Without Fear is a fantastic composition by Tagore. It is a prayer to God. It is a beautiful lyric taken from Gitanjali, a collection of 103 short poems. This lyric is replete with patriotism and nationalism. Here the poet ardently longs for freedom, truthfulness and reason. In this poem the poet prays to God to awake his countrymen from the slumber. He again prays to God to make his countrymen brave, bold, honest, rational, God-fearing, decent and kind. Here Tagore requests the Almighty to raise his country to a state where liberty could be enjoyed in the best way possible. For that the poet expects to see some qualities in his countrymen. These qualities are - boldness, self-respect, knowledge, honesty, assiduousness, rationality and broad - mindedness. All these qualities are essential to enjoy the freedom.

(व्हेयर द माइंड इज विदाउट फियर टैगोर की एक शानदार रचना है। यह भगवान से प्रार्थना है। यह गीतांजलि से लिया गया एक सुंदर गीत है  जो 103 लघु कविताओं का संग्रह है। यह गीत देशभक्ति और राष्ट्रवाद से परिपूर्ण है। यहाँ कवि स्वतंत्रतासच्चाई और तर्क का महत्व प्रतिपादित करता है। इस कविता में कवि ईश्वर से अपने देशवासियों को सुषुप्त चेतना को जगाने की प्रार्थना करता है। वह फिर से ईश्वर से प्रार्थना करता है कि वह उसके देशवासियों को बहादुरसाहसीईमानदारतर्कसंगतईश्वर से डरने वालासभ्य और दयालु बनाए। यहां टैगोर ने सर्वशक्तिमान से अपने देश को एक ऐसे राज्य के रूप में विकसित करने का अनुरोध किया जहां स्वतंत्रता का सर्वोत्तम तरीके से आनंद लिया जा सके। उसके लिए कवि अपने देशवासियों में कुछ गुणों को देखने की अपेक्षा करता है। ये गुण हैं- साहसस्वाभिमानज्ञानईमानदारीपरिश्रमविवेकशीलता और व्यापकता। स्वतंत्रता का आनंद लेने के लिए ये सभी गुण आवश्यक हैं।)

III. Where the Mind is Without Fear (Objective Type Questions):

(i) The poem Where the Mind is Without Fear is written by:
a. Rabindranath Tagore
b. Sarojini Naidu
c. William Wordsworth
d. Toru Dutt
Answer: a. Rabindranath Tagore 
(ii) Rabindranath Tagore is a well-known poet from:
a. Orissa
b. West Bengal
c. Bihar
d. Kerla
Answer: b. West Bengal
(iii) Rabindranath Tagore was awarded the Nobel Prize for literature  in the year:
a. 1931
b. 1921
c. 1913
d. 1945
Answer: c. 1913
(iv) Which of the following is a very famous work by Tagore?
a. Sharadhanjali
b. Gitanjali
c. Geetmala
d. Savitri
Answer: b. Gitanjali
(v) What is meant by the sub clause 'Where the mind is without fear and head is held high':
a. To be fearless and self respecting
b. To be proud of one's high position
c. To stand straight
d. To be fearless and haughty
Answer: a. To be fearless and self respecting 
(vi) According to Tagore what is meant by the sub-clause 'Where knowledge is free'?
a. Where people do not have to pay for education
b. Where people have access to knowledge through internet
c. Where people are provided education freely irrespective of their caste, creed, social status and nationality.
d. Where right to free education is guaranteed by the constitution.
Answer: c. Where people are provided education freely irrespective of their caste, creed, social status and nationality. 
(vii) According to tagore, 'narrow domestic walls refers to:
a. Small houses with narrow walls
b. A house divided into rooms by was
c. Narrow minded thinking
d. Broad minded thinking
Answer: c. Narrow minded thinking
(viii) Tagore compares a clear stream to:
a. Dreary desert sand
b. Reason
c. Dead habit
d. Narrow domestic walls
Answer: b. Reason
(ix) In the sentence 'Where the mind is led forward by thee; the word 'thee' refers to:
a. Father
b. Poet
c. God
d. You
Answer: c. God
(x) In the poem Where the Mind is Without Fear Tagore prays to God for uplifting:
a. His countrymen
b. Citizens of the world
c. The readers of the poem
d. Freedom fighters of his time 
Answer: a. His countrymen
(xi) Where the Mind is Without Fear is :
a. A story
b. A play
c. A poem
d. An essay
 Answer: c. A poem
xii. Narrow domestic walls means:
a. Partition
b. Differences
c. Social Prejudices
d. Al of the above
Answer: c. Social Prejudices 
xiii. Antonym of logical is:
a. Intelligence
b. Illogical
c. Inlogical
d. Dislogical
Answer: b. Illogical
xiv. Tagore compares reason with:
a. River
b. Stream
c. Steam
d. Habit
Answer: b. Stream
xv. The poem Where the Mind is Without Fear is addressed to: 
a. God
b. The poet
c. The poet's father
d. The poet's mother
Answer: a. God
xvi. According to Tagore The mind should be without:
a. Ego
b. Pride
c. Fear
d. Wishes
Answer: c. Fear 
xvii. When was Tagore born:
a.1861
b. 1862
c. 1863
d. 1864
Answer: a.1861
Xviii. Where was Tagore born:
a. Patna
b. Lucknow
c. Calcutta
d. Delhi
Answer :c. Calcutta
xviv. The national anthem of India 'Jana Gana Mana' has been composed by:
a. Tagore
B. Nirala
c. Sarojini Naidu
d. Aurobindo
Answer: a. Tagore
xx. In Gitanjali there are:
a. 103 poems
b. 110 poems
c. 120 poems
d. 130 poems
Answer: a. 103 poems


IV. Where the Mind is Without Fear (Short Type Questions)

Q1. What is meant by the expression ‘Knowledge is free’?
Ans: The poet is of the opinion that knowledge is free because it cannot be broken up into fragments by narrow domestic walls. It is infinite and free for all.
Q2. What narrow domestic walls are referred to by the poet?
Ans: According to the poet narrow domestic walls mean the barriers in the way of the unity of people. These walls mean the narrow mindedness of people and those hurdles which prevent human beings to be united.
Q3. Why does the poet compare reason with stream?
Ans: The poet compares reason with stream because reason should be clean and clear like a stream. As a stream does not lose its way, reason should also not lose its way into dreary desert sand of dead habits.
Q4. What are the two qualities of mind presented in the poem?
Ans: Constant growth of thought and action and fearlessness of mind are the two qualities that are presented in the poem.
Q5. Why does the poet compare "dead habit" to “dreary desert sand”?
Ans: The poet compares dead habit to dreary desert sand. The poet is of the opinion that the old beliefs are dangerous for good sense. In the same way the dreary desert sand is dangerous for the entity of the stream.
Q6. Whom is the poem addressed to?
Ans: The poem is addressed to God.
Q7. Name the poet of the poem Where the Mind is Without Fear.
Ans: Rabindranath Tagore is the name of the poem Where the Mind is Without Fear.
Q8. How should the mind be according to the poet?
Ans: According to the poet mind should be fearless.
Q9.  What does the poet mean by the phrase 'head held high'?
Ans: The phrase 'head held high' means to be proud of one's position.
Q10. According to Tagore, how should knowledge be spread?
Ans: According to Tagore, education should be provided freely. In this context there should be no barrier of caste, creed, social status and nationality. 
Q11. What does the poet mean by 'narrow domestic walls'?
Ans: 'Narrow domestic walls' means narrow minded thinking.
Q12. How should our words be, in the opinion of Tagore?
Ans: In the opinion of Tagore, our words should come out from the depth of truth.
Q13. How can 'tireless striving' achieve perfection?
Ans: In Tagore's opinion his countrymen should do their work properly. They should labour hard. Thus the tireless striving can achieve perfection.
Q14. What is reason compared with?
Ans: Reason is compared with clear stream.
Q15. Where has reason lost its way?
Ans: Reason has lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit.
Q16. What does the poet mean by 'dead habit'?
Ans: According to the poet, dead habit means where there is no reason.
Q17. Where is the mind led forward by God?
Ans: The mind is led forward by God into ever widening thought and action.
Q18. To whom is the poem addressed?
Ans: The poem is addressed to God.
Q19. Whom do the words 'my father' and 'thee' refer to?
Ans: The words 'my father' and 'thee' refer to God.

V.  Say whether the following statements are True or False:

1. Reason, in the poem, is compared to a stream - True
2. Mind, in the poem, has to express itself in narrow thoughts - False
3. Mind is influenced by God - True
4. The poet's country is asleep and he wishes it to wake up - True
5. The world desired by the poet is to be divided into small parts - False
6. Words and truthfulness are closely associated in the poem - True
7. Knowledge, in the poem refers to free access - True
8. Mind expresses itself in narrow thoughts - False
9. The poet desires to let his country sleep - False
10. Tagore prays for his countrymen in the poem Where the Mind is Without Fear - True
11. Tagore was awarded the Nobel prize in 1913 - True
12. According to Tagore, the 'words' must come from the depths of heart - False
13. Tagore prays that his countrymen live with freedom and dignity - True
14. Tagore compares reason to a dreary desert - False

VI. Match the words in the list 'A' with their antonyms in list 'B':
          A                              B
1. Knowledge           1. Body
2. Fear                      2. Narrow 
3. High                     3. Courage
4. Fragments            4. Bondage
5. Perfection            5. Low
6. Mind                    6. Imperfection
7. Wide                    7. Ignorance
8. Freedom              8. Whole
Anawer:
        A                                B
1. Knowledge -           Ignorance
2. Fear -                      Courage
3. High -                     Low
4. Fragments -           Whole
5. Perfection -           Imperfection
6. Mind -                   Body
7. Wide -                   Narrow
8. Freedom -             Bondage

VII. Use the following words in sentences of your own:

Fear, freedom, domestic, depth, action, heaven
Answer:
1. Fear- Fear makes a man coward.
2.Freedom- Nothing is more precious than freedom.
3. Domestic- The narrow domestic walls are the barriers in the way of development.
4. Depth- My pond has a depth of 10 feet.
5. Action- The Gita conveys the importance of action in man's life.
6. Heaven- The virtuous souls get honour in heaven.

VIII. A paragraph on My Country

My Country

The name of my country is India. It is known by many names. It is called Aryavart, Bharat and Hindustan too. It is really a great country. It is popular as a land of ideals. Unity in diversity is its main feature. This country is full of various castes, creeds, religions and cultures. But in spite of its diversity, people of this country live together happily. The people of this country speak different language but its national language is Hindi. The natural beauty of this country is appreciable. It is surrounded by Oceans from three sides. Tagore's 'Jana gana mana' is the national anthem of this country. Vande Mataram by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee is the national song of India. Great souls like Rama, Krishna, Mahavira, Buddha, Vivekananda, Gandhi and Kalam made this country a land of virtues. India is known for its heritage too. This country has made a special mark in the field of spiritualism and scientific development. Liberty, equality, fraternity, honesty and tolerance are some special features of my country.

(मेरे देश का नाम भारत है। इसे कई नामों से जाना जाता है। इसे आर्यावर्तभारत और हिंदुस्तान भी कहा जाता है। यह वास्तव में एक महान देश है। यह आदर्शों की भूमि के रूप में लोकप्रिय है। अनेकता में एकता इसकी प्रमुख विशेषता है। यह देश विभिन्न जातियोंपंथोंधर्मों और संस्कृतियों से भरा हुआ है। लेकिन इसकी विविधता के बावजूद इस देश के लोग खुशी-खुशी एक साथ रहते हैं। इस देश के लोग अलग-अलग भाषा बोलते हैं लेकिन इसकी राष्ट्रभाषा हिंदी है। इस देश की प्राकृतिक सुंदरता काबिले तारीफ है। यह तीन ओर से महासागरों से घिरा हुआ है। टैगोर का 'जन गण मनइस देश का राष्ट्रगान है। बंकिम चंद्र चटर्जी का वंदे मातरम भारत का राष्ट्रीय गीत है। रामकृष्णमहावीरबुद्धविवेकानंदगांधी और कलाम जैसी महान आत्माओं ने इस देश को सद्गुणों का देश बनाया। भारत अपनी विरासत के लिए भी जाना जाता है। इस देश ने अध्यात्मवाद और वैज्ञानिक विकास के क्षेत्र में एक विशेष पहचान बनाई है। स्वतंत्रतासमानताबंधुत्वईमानदारी और सहिष्णुता मेरे देश की कुछ खास विशेषताएं हैं।)

IX. A paragraph on Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore

Rabindranath Tagore is a very great Indian poet. He was a versatile genius. It is he who got the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913. He was born in Calcutta on May 7, 1861. His literary works include fictions, essays, short stories, travelogues, dramas and numerous popular songs. But it was poetry that brought world popularity for him. This very Tagore has composed Jana Gana Mana, the national anthem of India. He also has composed Amar Sonar Bangla, the national anthem of Bangladesh. His literary canvas is vast. It covers lots of style. Tagore skillfully handled all the genres of literature. He studies man in relation to Nature, man in relation to God and man in relation to man. Tagore's poetry is mainly lyrical. His poetry deals with love for God, love for nature and love for humanity. His famous song Where the Mind is Without Fear is full with patriotism, nationalism and Indianness. This great poet is known for his best known collection, Gitanjali. In short, Tagore is a representative poet of our country. He always sings for the betterment of his motherland. He attempts to inspire his countrymen to practice the ideals propounded by their forefathers.

(टैगोर एक बहुत ही महान भारतीय कवि हैं। वे बहुमुखी प्रतिभा के धनी थे। ये वे हैं जिन्हें 1913 में साहित्य का नोबेल पुरस्कार मिला था। उनका जन्म 7 मई1861 को कलकत्ता में हुआ था। उनके साहित्यिक कार्यों में कथाएँनिबंधलघु कथाएँयात्रा वृत्तांतनाटक और कई लोकप्रिय गीत शामिल हैं। लेकिन यह कविता ही थी जिसने उन्हें विश्व लोकप्रियता दिलाई। इसी टैगोर ने भारत के राष्ट्रगान जन गण मन की रचना की है। उन्होंने बांग्लादेश के राष्ट्रगान अमार सोनार बांग्ला की भी रचना की। उनका साहित्यिक कैनवास विशाल है। इसमें बहुत सारी शैली शामिल हैं। टैगोर ने साहित्य की सभी विधाओं को कुशलता से संभाला। उन्होंने प्रकृति एवं मनुष्य, भगवान एवं आदमी और मनुष्य एवं मनुष्य के आपसी संबंधों का अध्ययन किया है । टैगोर की कविता मुख्यतः गेय है। उनकी कविता ईश्वर के प्रति प्रेमप्रकृति के प्रति प्रेम और मानवता के प्रति प्रेम से संबंधित है। उनका प्रसिद्ध गीत व्हेयर द माइंड इज विदाउट फियर देशभक्तिराष्ट्रवाद और भारतीयता से भरपूर है। यह महान कवि अपने सबसे प्रसिद्ध संग्रहगीतांजलि के लिए जाना जाता है। संक्षेप में टैगोर हमारे देश के प्रतिनिधि कवि हैं। वे हमेशा मातृभूमि की भलाई के लिए गाते हैं। वे अपने देशवासियों को उनके पूर्वजों द्वारा प्रतिपादित आदर्शों पर चलने के लिए प्रेरित करने का प्रयास करते हैं।)
Sandal S Anshu, Satna

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